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Unit 4 - People In Business
Quick revise
In this unit candidates will investigate how businesses organise and motivate their staff. Candidates will also reflect on their potential as future employees by considering their personal attributes.
 
1. Business Organisation
 
In this section candidates will investigate how businesses organise their staff and define their job roles. They will also investigate the working arrangements of staff at different levels of hierarchy within businesses and how these meet the needs of the business.
 
1.1 Investigating Organisational Structures
 
• interpreting organisation charts
• how communication and decision-making takes place within organisations.
Candidates should know how to identify the levels of hierarchy and chain of command using an organisation chart.
 
Candidates should understand that communication and decision-making do not necessarily occur in ways indicated by organisation charts, eg unofficial channels of communication and specially convened decision-making groups.
1.2 Investigating Job Roles
• the use of job descriptions
• defining job roles.
Candidates should understand the use of job descriptions to define job roles and provide information about them, ie job title, accountability, duties and responsibilities, hours of work and rates of pay.
 
Candidates should be able to identify the key job roles in medium to large sized businesses, including: managers, supervisors and employees.
 
Candidates should investigate the following aspects of job roles: key responsibilities, tasks or activities, job security, decision-making and problem-solving, skills, qualifications and personal qualities required.
1.3 Investigating Working Arrangements
 
• the use of employment contracts
• the importance of flexible working arrangements.
Candidates should be familiar with the contents of employment contracts, including: permanency, hours of work, place(s) of work, pay and benefits.
Candidates should be aware of the importance of flexible working arrangements and the reasons why they sometimes need to be altered, eg to increase productivity or improve the quality of products. Candidates should be able to explain how these changes can affect the welfare and morale of employees.
 
2. Employee Motivation
 
In this section candidates will investigate the factors motivating employees. The study of motivation should be practical and focus on factors affecting motivation and the actual methods of motivation used by businesses.
 
2.1 Effective Working Relationships
 
• impact of legislation
• importance of employer expectations
• importance of employee expectations.
Candidates should be aware of the impact of legislation on effective working relationships, such as: equal pay, discrimination linked to disability, gender and race, employment rights, working hours and health and safety.
 
Candidates should understand the importance of employer expectations, such as: employees meeting terms of their contracts, co-operation of employees in meeting the objectives of the business and employees following health and safety regulations.
 
Candidates should understand the importance of employee expectations, such as: being paid according to their contract, being provided with a safe working environment, receiving appropriate training and being permitted to join trade unions or staff associations.
2.2 Motivating Staff
 
• factors affecting motivation
• methods of motivating employees
• importance of appraisal and training.
Candidates should be aware of the varied factors that motivate employees such as: positive appraisal, suitable working conditions, acceptable levels of pay and appropriate training.
 
Candidates should understand that the relative importance of motivational factors will vary for each employee.
 
Candidates should understand how businesses use appraisal/performance review and training, including on the job training (eg job shadowing, rotation and mentoring) and off the job training (eg external courses and placements).
 
Knowledge of specific motivational theories (such as Maslow) is not required.
 
3. Attributes of Employees
 
In this section candidates will explore their own skills and personality traits, considering how these indicate their suitability for particular types of occupations.
 
3.1 Understanding Personal Skills Profiles
 
• the range of personal skills
• producing a personal skills profile
• the importance of personal skills.
Candidates should be aware of the range of skills that individuals have to offer potential employers, such as: team working, entrepreneurial skills, self confidence, motivation, communication skills, supervisory skills.
 
Candidates should be able to explain how these skills can be identified through the use of psychometric tests and the extent to which businesses use these in their recruitment process.
3.2 Understanding Personality Tests
 
• the importance of personality tests
• relevance for career planning.
Candidates should be able to describe how personality tests are used to identify and describe personality traits. They should be aware of the importance of identifying the skills and personality traits of individuals to establish the right type of occupation.
 
Assessment
 
This unit will be assessed by means of a controlled assessment. The work must be the candidate’s own individual response produced under controlled conditions.
 
Task Setting
 
This unit will be assessed on a portfolio of evidence, based on the candidate’s own research of a business, which must investigate:
A how organising staff and defining their job roles contribute to the success of the business
B the key factors motivating a manager, supervisor and employee within the business
C whether the business might be suitable to you as a future place of employment, taking into account your own skills and personality traits.
Candidates’ portfolios must include evidence of materials used to make at least one presentation on the suitability of the business as a future place of employment.
 
Task Taking
 
• Preparation
 
Before candidates embark on their investigation centres should prepare them by teaching the key terms and concepts contained within this unit. It is anticipated that this will take up to 50 hours. During this phase, you should also ensure that candidates are familiar with the marking criteria and are aware of the need to evaluate their findings.
 
• Research and Planning
 
Having taught the topics, it is suggested that candidates spend about 17 hours researching the business. During the research and planning phase, teachers may give feedback to individual candidates to support them in their learning but this assistance must be recorded.
Candidates may work with others during the research and planning stage. Each candidate must, however, produce an individual response to the tasks.
 
Final Presentation
 
Candidates should spend about seven hours writing up their findings. While writing up their response, candidates must work independently and complete all work under supervision. This time may be divided into more than one session, provided that the teacher collects all materials at the end of each session, keeps them under secure conditions and returns them to candidates at the beginning of the next session.
 
Task Marking
 
Centres must mark all controlled assessments using the marking criteria on the next two pages. The work will be moderated by AQA according to the procedures outlined in section 7 of this specification.
 
Level
AO1 (21 marks)
AO2 (25 marks)
AO3 (24 marks)
4
21–16 marks
The candidate selects relevant and detailed data/information from a wide range of sources. Appropriate methods are used to organise and communicate the data/ information effectively.
The candidate demonstrates substantial knowledge and understanding of relevant
business concepts, issues and terminology.
25 –19 marks
The candidate demonstrates the ability to apply effectively and consistently skills, knowledge and understanding when:
 
• thoroughly planning and carrying out the investigation;
• successfully completing key parts of the investigation.
24 –19 marks
The candidate draws a range of appropriate conclusions based on:
 
• an analysis of the selected data/ information to produce key findings;
• an evaluation, supported by a reasoned justification, of the
significance of the key findings.
 
Ideas are well structured and organised in a clear and appropriate form. Spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used accurately. Specialist terms are used frequently and effectively. 
3
15 –11 marks
The candidate selects relevant data/information from a range of sources. Some appropriate methods are used to organise
and communicate the data/information.
 
The candidate demonstrates good knowledge and understanding of relevant
business concepts, issues and terminology.
18 –13 marks
The candidate demonstrates the ability to apply skills, knowledge and understanding when:
 
• planning and carrying out the
investigation;
• completing aspects of the
investigation.
18 –13 marks
The candidate draws some appropriate conclusions based on:
 
• a partial analysis of selected data/information to produce some findings;
• a judgement, with some justification, of the significance of the findings.
 
Ideas are organised in an appropriate form. Spelling, punctuation and grammar
are used with reasonable accuracy. Some appropriate use of specialist terms is evident.
 
 
2
10 – 6 marks
The candidate selects data/information from a limited range of sources. A limited attempt is made to organise the data/information.
 
The candidate demonstrates a basic knowledge and understanding of some
relevant business concepts, issues and terminology.
12 –7 marks
The candidate demonstrates some ability to apply skills, knowledge and understanding when:
 
• carrying out the investigation;
• attempting to complete aspects of the investigation.
12 –7 marks
The candidate reaches some simple conclusions based on:
 
• a review of selected data/information in order to identify results from the
investigation;
• a basic judgement, based upon limited evidence, of the significance of the investigation’s results.
 
An attempt to organise and structure ideas in an appropriate form. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with some accuracy but there are some errors. Specialist terms are used occasionally.
1
5 –1 marks
The candidate has collated data/information from a limited range of sources.The data/information is presented without any attempt to organise it.
The candidate demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding of some
business concepts and iissues. There is little use of business terminology.
6 –1 marks
The candidate attempts to apply skills, knowledge and understanding when:
 
• carrying out the investigation;
• describing some outcomes of the investigation.
6 –1 marks
The candidate states some conclusions based on:
 
• collected data/information;
• unsupported judgements.
 
Ideas are presented in a way that is adequate to convey meaning. The rules of spelling, punctuation and grammar are not fully understood and there are frequent errors. Few or no specialist terms are used.
0
0 marks
The candidate presents no relevant data/information nor demonstrates any knowledge and understanding of business concepts, issues and terminology.
0 marks
The candidate makes no attempt to apply knowledge and understanding to the investigation.
0 marks
The candidate makes no attempt to state conclusions nor analyse and evaluate evidence.
 
 
 
 
 
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