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OCR GCSE Physical Education (PE)
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These links relate to the OCR GCSE exam for Physical Edcucation covering

  • Short Course (J086) – for exams June 2009 onwards
  • Full Course (J586) – for exams June 2009 onwards
  • Link to OCR page
Description Short Course Full Course External Links
Unit B451: An Introduction to Physical Education      
Key concepts in Physical Education      
  • Competence – The relationship between skill, the selection and application of skills, tactics and compositional ideas and the readiness of body and mind to cope with physical activity.
  • Performance – Using physical competence and knowledge and understanding of physical activity to produce effective outcomes when participating in physical activity.
  • Creativity – Exploring and experimenting with techniques, tactics and compositional ideas to produce efficient and effective outcomes.
  • Healthy, active lifestyles – Understanding the positive contribution that regular, fit for purpose physical activity makes to the physical and mental health of the individual.

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Key processes in Physical Education      

Developing skills and techniques

  • Improving the range, difficulty and quality of skills and techniques and also developing the consistency, precision, control and fluency of performance.
  • Fundamental motor skills: Running, Throwing, Jumping, Kicking, Catching, Hitting.
  • Apply these to, and be able to analyse performance in, a range of physical activities.

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Decision making

  • Using tactics and strategies, composition and creativity, planning for improved performance and responding effectively during performance.
  • Identify and give examples of different types of decision making in physical activities:  e.g. Invasion games – Football – which pass to make, when to close down an opposition player. e.g. Target games – Golf – choice of shot based upon weather conditions or the lie of the ball.
  • Identify and give examples of different types of decision making within different roles such as performer, coach/leader and official: e.g. Performer – Tennis – trying to read an opponent’s serve. Coach/leader – Basketball – use of time-out for strategic reasons. Official – Football – assistant referee deciding if a player is in an offside position.
  • Responding appropriately when participating in different roles in physical activity:
  • The importance of abiding by rules/codes of behaviour.
  • The importance of etiquette and sportsmanship with applied practical examples.
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Physical and mental capacity

  • Maintaining and developing physical strength, stamina, speed and flexibility and preparing physically and mentally for involvement in physical activity.
  • The components of fitness and a healthy, balanced lifestyle:
  • Cardiovascular endurance/stamina: Examples of how the component links to a healthy lifestyle – e.g. to be able to finish physical jobs; to not be too tired by the end of the day.
  • Muscular endurance: Examples of how the component links to a healthy lifestyle – e.g. to be able to carry out repetitive tasks without tiring easily; to be able to finish an exercise programme.
  • Speed: Examples of how the component links to a healthy lifestyle – e.g. to be able to perform a physical activity quickly; to get physical jobs done quickly.
  • Strength: Examples of how the component links to a healthy lifestyle – e.g. to be able to lift and carry heavy objects safely; to be able to carry a small child or to be able to perform a dynamic physical activity such as hockey/rugby.
  • Flexibility: Examples of how the component links to a healthy lifestyle – e.g. to be able to sustain physical activity without straining muscles; to be able to reach for things; to be able to perform demanding physical activities such as gymnastics and dance.
  • The importance of the warm up and cool down:
  • Warm up – to prepare for performance; enables flexibility; improve speed/strength of muscular contraction; reduce risk of injury.
  • Cool down – speeds removal of lactic acid/waste products; prevents stiffness/soreness; prevents injury.
  • Apply knowledge of warm up and cool down using practical examples.

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Evaluating and improving

  • Being able to judge the quality and effectiveness of performance, make informed decisions on improving the quality and effectiveness of performance, develop action plans to improve the quality and effectiveness of performance and plan for sustained involvement in physical activity.
  • The characteristics of skilful movement: Efficiency, Pre-determined, Co-ordinated, Fluent, Aesthetic.
  • Candidates should understand the characteristics of skilful movement to enable them to judge the quality and effectiveness of performance.
  • Candidates should be able to describe performance and outcome goals and the differences between them and be able to give practical examples of both.
  • Assessing the body’s readiness for exercise and training to plan for sustained involvement in physical activity:.
  • The importance of health screening, including blood pressure and resting heart rate
  • Measurement of body mass index (BMI)
  • Suitable tests for cardiovascular endurance, e.g. the Cooper 12 minute run/walk test
  • Suitable tests for strength, e.g. the grip dynamometer test
  • Suitable tests for speed, e.g. the 30m sprint test
  • Suitable tests for flexibility, e.g. the sit and reach test
  • The validity of tests and measurements to take into account age, fitness levels and ability
  • The importance of test protocols and Health and Safety considerations
  • Taking into account family history of relevant illnesses and lifestyle of the participant.

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Making informed choices about active, healthy lifestyles

  • An understanding of the function of the seven essential components of a healthy diet and the contribution diet makes to a balanced, healthy lifestyle.
    Essential components:
    • - Carbohydrates
    • - Proteins
    • - Fats
    • - Minerals
    • - Vitamins
    • - Fibre
    • - Water
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  • Characteristics of a balanced, healthy lifestyle: Description of characteristics, e.g. non smoking, active (amount according to age/ability) anda healthy diet including sufficient hydration. Limit or non-use of alcohol.
    • - The balanced diet – positive and negative energy balance
    • - Current recommended amounts of exercise (e.g. 1 hour 5 times per week, knowledge of different recommendations from different sources).

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  • The effects of the following on performance and participation in physical activity:
    • - Age
    • - Gender
    • - Disability
    • - Smoking
    • - Alcohol
    • - Over- and under-eating
    • - Performance enhancing drugs (steroids; blood doping).

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  • Measures/indicators of health and well-being:
    • - Satisfaction with aspects of life
    • - Frequency of positive and negative feelings
    • - Access to green space
    • - Level of participation in other activities
    • - Positive mental health.
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  • Methods of exercise and training programmes for an active, healthy lifestyle such as: Circuit training, Aerobics/aqua aerobics, Spin, Body pump,Pilates, Yoga and Dance exercise.

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Opportunities, pathways and participation in Physical Education      
Levels of participation in sport and physical activity
  • Candidates should show understanding and application of patterns and trends of participation in different age groups.
  • Candidates should have knowledge of numbers of people participating regularly in sporting activity at the recommended level (using established and reliable sources such as UK Sport).
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Reasons for participation

  • Positive
    • - Health reasons (management of stress; illness; well-being; life expectancy)
    • - Image
    • - Enjoyment
    • - Social/friendship
    • - Hobby
    • - Parental/role model influences
    • - Vocation/profession.
  • Negative
    • - Health reasons (including disability)
    • - Injury
    • - Discrimination
    • - Peer pressure
    • - Cultural
    • - Other pressures/interests
    • - The technological/sedentary lifestyle
    • - Lack of confidence/self esteem
    • - Lack of role model/parental support
    • - Lack of opportunity.
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Specific social and cultural reasons affecting participation

  • Possible positive and negative effects of the following on participation:
    • - Age
    • - Gender
    • - Education
    • - Family
    • - Disability
    • - Ethnicity
    • - Religion
    • - Environment
    • - Climate.
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School influences on participation
  • The role of the school curriculum in promoting an active, healthy lifestyle.
  • Key processes and how these influence participation
  • Developing skills (e.g. motor skills) – examples in curriculum and why effective in promoting physical activity.
  • Making and applying decisions (e.g. in role of an official) – examples in curriculum and why effective in promoting physical activity.
  • Developing physical and mental capacity (e.g. in role as a leader) – examples in curriculum and why effective in promoting physical activity.
  • Evaluating and improving (e.g. technique in a physical activity) – examples in curriculum and why effective in promoting physical activity.
  • Making informed decisions about lifestyle (e.g. following relevant guidance on amount of exercise and diet) – examples in curriculum and why effective in promoting physical activity.
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Identification and description of pathways for involvement in physical activity
  • Regularly getting involved in Physical Education, sport, dance and healthy physical activity
  • Taking part in school and community sport and dance opportunities
  • Deciding to become a performer, leader, coach or official and working towards accreditation
  • Being involved in increasingly complex and challenging tasks and activities
  • Reaching the highest possible standards of involvement in physical activity
  • Pursuing routes into sport and physical activity through volunteering.
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Unit B453: Developing Knowledge in Physical Education      
Developing skills, techniques and motivation      
The learning of skills through a range of methods
  • Practice/rehearsal
  • Copying others
  • Trial and error
  • Appropriate role models.
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The importance of different types of feedback
  • Intrinsic
  • Extrinsic
  • Knowledge of results
  • Knowledge of performance.
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Motivation
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic motives to participate in different roles of participant, leader and official.
  • The importance of goal setting
    • - To optimise performance
    • - To ensure exercise adherence
    • - To control anxiety.
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The SMART principle
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable or agreed
  • Realistic or recorded
  • Time-phased
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Developing physical and mental capacity      
The development of the skeletal system and its role in physical activity:

The different functions of the skeletal system:

  • Shape/support; importance of healthy posture.
  • Blood cell production; importance of red blood cells for energy/minerals.
  • Protection; importance of healthy bones to avoid injury and allow sustained involvement in physical activity.
  • Movement/leverage; importance of levers and joints in facilitating movement.
  • Mineral store; importance of minerals for health.
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The development and maintenance of healthy joints and the ways in which different types of joints affect participation and performance in an active, healthy lifestyle.

  • Types of joint:
    • - Hinge – elbow and knee:
    • - Ball and socket – shoulder:
  • Ranges of movement that are allowed by these joints:
    • - Flexion
    • - Extension
    • - Rotation
    • - Abduction
    • - Adduction.
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Structure of joints and the value of healthy and efficient joints:
  • Ligament
  • Cartilage
  • Synovial fluid.

Associated problems with joints and how to avoid them through physical activity and healthy lifestyles:

  • Inflammation of joints
  • Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis.
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Understanding the muscular system in relation to physical performance

  • Identification of ways in which an active, healthy lifestyle can maintain and develop the health of muscles.
  • Understanding which of the major muscle groups (Deltoid; Trapezius; Latissimus dorsi; Pectorals; Biceps; Triceps; Abdominals; Quadriceps; Hamstrings) are involved in and benefit from particular types of physical activity.
  • The roles of muscle in movement
    • - Prime movers
    • - Antagonist
    • - Synergist
    • - Antagonistic pairs.
  • Role and function of tendons
  • The value of healthy and efficient muscles and tendons with associated problems and how to avoid them:
    • - Soreness
    • - Strain
    • - Overuse
    • - Inflammation
    • - Tendonitis.
  • The effects of lactic acid
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Mental preparation
  • Control of emotions to enable fair play and to cope with stress.
  • The effects of mental preparation for performance:
    • - Relaxation
    • - Focusing
    • - Raising confidence.

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Informed decision making using the principles of training and safe
exercise
     
Short term effects of an active, healthy lifestyle
  • Respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume
  • Heart rate, cardiac output and stroke volume
  • Muscle fatigue; increase in temperature.
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Long term effects of an active, healthy lifestyle
  • Heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output
  • Lung volumes and rate of recovery
  • Increase in strength of muscle fibres; hypertrophy; increased tolerance to lactic acid.
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Exercise and training principles that affect improving health and fitness

Identification and description of:

  • Overload
  • Specificity
  • Progression
  • Reversibility.
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Identification of the FITT principle and applied practical examples of how these might affect health and fitness
  • Frequency
  • Intensity
  • Time
  • Type.
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Definitions and examples of aerobic and anaerobic exercise and training
  • Candidates should be able to give simple descriptions of aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
  • Candidates should be able to describe how these types of exercise can develop participation and performance in an active, healthy lifestyle.
    • - Circuit training
    • - Weight training
    • - Plyometrics
    • - Flexibility training
    • - Continuous training
    • - Fartlek
    • - Interval training.

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Identifying potential hazards in a range of settings related to the role of participant, leader or official
  • The gymnasium/sports hall/fitness centre
  • Playing field
  • Artificial outdoor areas
  • Court areas
  • Outdoor adventurous areas.

How to reduce risks and injuries

Minimising risks through knowledge of:

  • Correct clothing/footwear
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Health and Safety procedures
  • Lifting, carrying and placing equipment safely
  • Appropriate level of competition
  • Warm up and cool down
  • The importance of personal hygiene to avoid minor infections.
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