Title

Attachment
Quick revise

Specification Requirements:

  • Caregiver-infant interactions in humans: reciprocity and interactional synchrony. Stages of attachment identified by Schaffer. Multiple attachments and the role of the father.

  • Animal studies of attachment: Lorenz and Harlow.

  • Explanations of attachment: learning theory and Bowlby’s monotropic theory. The concepts of a critical period and an internal working model.

  • Ainsworth’s ‘Strange Situation’. Types of attachment: secure, insecure-avoidant and insecure resistant.

  • Cultural variations in attachment, including van Ijzendoorn.

  • Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation. Romanian orphan studies: effects of institutionalisation.

  • The influence of early attachment on childhood and adult relationships, including the role of an internal working model.


Requirements broken down (research studies are in bold) - Students should be able to:

Introduction to attachment

  1. Describe and evaluate caregiver- infant interactions
  2. Describe and evaluate different attachment figures including the role of fathers
  3. Describe and evaluate Schaffer and Emerson’s research study into the formation of early attachments
  4. Describe and evaluate Schaffer’s stages of attachment

Animal studies of attachment

  1. Describe and evaluate Lorenz’s research into imprinting
  2. Describe and evaluate Harlow’s research into contact comfort

Explanations of attachment

  1. Describe and evaluate the learning theory explanation of attachment including research contradiction from Schaffer and Emerson
  2. Describe and evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment including research contradiction from Schaffer and Emerson, and support from Brazelton

Types of attachment

  1. Describe and evaluate Ainsworth’s Strange Situation study
  2. Describe 3 types of attachment and their behaviour in the strange situation study
  3. Describe and evaluate research into cultural variations (Van Ijzendoorn)

Breaking attachments

  1. Describe and evaluate Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation including Bowlby’s research to support
  2. Describe and evaluate Romanian orphan studies including Rutter

Attachment and later relationships

  1. Describe and evaluate the influence of attachment on relationships in childhood
  2. Describe and evaluate the influence of attachment on adult relationships including research support from Hazan and Shaver

KEY CONCEPTS

Introduction to attachment 

  • Attachment
  • Reciprocity
  • Interactional synchrony
  • Stages of attachment
  • Multiple attachments

Animal studies of attachment

  • Animal studies

Explanations of attachment

  • Learning theory
  • Monotropic
  • Internal working model
  • Critical period

Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

  • Strange Situation
  • Secure attachment
  • Insecure-avoidant attachment
  • Insecure-resistant attachment
  • Cultural variations

Breaking attachments

  • Maternal deprivation
  • Institutionalisation
  • Orphan studies

Attachment and later relationships

  • Childhood relationships
  • Adult relationships
  • Internal working model
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