Filtering (Filtration) A method of removing an insoluble solid from a liquid. The liquid particles and any dissolved particles are small enough to fit through the holes in a filter paper. An undissolved solid has particles that are too big to do so.
Flow Another word for move. It is often used to describe the movement of lava.
Formula (see chemical formula)
Fossil The remains of an animal or plant that have been turned into rock and preserved. They are only found in sedimentary rocks (since the changes that produce metamorphic and igneous rocks would destroy any fossils)
Fossil record A method of dating rocks by looking at the types of fossil taht are present and matching them to samples from elsewhere. It can also help in identifying the movement of continental plates.
Fraction A set of hydrocarbons with similar boiling points that is produced by the fractional distillation of crude oil.
Fractionating column Used in the fractional distillation of crude oil. It is hotter at the bottom. Crude oil is heated to form a vapour which is then passed in at the bottom of the fractionating tower.
Freeze-thaw When water turns to ice, it expands. If some water is trapped in a crack in a piece of rock, the freezing can cause more damage to the rock. If this process is repeated many times, the rock can be broken down. This is an example of physical weathering.
Freezing point The freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid becomes solid. It is the same value as the melting point.
Freezing point depression It can be used to identify a substance andit also shows that a liquid is not pure. It explains why salt is spread on the icy roads. Salt solutionb has a lower freezing point than pure water.
Fuel A substance that can be burned to release energy. When considering energy resources, fuels are often divided into renewable and non-renewable fuels. Renewable fuels are those whicvh can be replaced fairly quickly (such as alcohol which is formed from fermenting sugar from fast growing sugar cane).
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