How to Get an A grade in 'Groupings'
- Learn the framework.
- Do all the practice exam papers you can to help with timing
- Do the groupings answer after you have done the Power/Gender/Technology question
- Go through each text, noting which possible groups the text will fit in to and what linguistic features related to the groups are present.
Plan your answer in a table
Texts Groups Similar Linguistic Features Differences
A&B Formal Speech complex sentences, audience B is a conversation A is a monologue
Use the following three recommended groups and sub groups
Purpose - inform, persuade, entertain/audience
Spoken - planned/unplanned speech
Levels of formality - formal and informal
Use graphology and/or semantic fields as a final group once you have fully analysed the above three in detail
Use the following key phrases:
My first grouping will be purpose. Text A and B can be grouped because they both aim to persuade. They can be grouped because they both…
STATE HOW THEY SEEK TO PERSUADE – WHAT FEATURES OF PERSUASION ARE EVIDENT IN THE TEXTS E.G... HYPERBOLE, REPETITION, LISTING, REPORTED SPEECH, HUMOUR, INCLUSIVE PRONOUNS, FRIENDLY IMPERATIVES, COLLOQUIALISMS, ALLITERATION, INTERROGATIVES, EMOTIVE LANGUAGE, ADJECTIVES ETC. QUOTE FROM THE TEXT TO ILLUSTRATE YOUR POINTS. WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF THIS LANGUAGE? THE TEXTS MIGHT BE DIFFERENT IN TERMS OF CONTEXT AND AUDIENCE.
However, the texts are different because .....
Text E, F and D can be grouped because they both aim to inform. They can be grouped because they both…
STATE HOW THEY INFORM E.G... DECLARATIVES, FACT AND OPINION, VARIETY OF SENTENCE TYPES, USE OF EXPERT OPINION,IMPERATIVES, METAPHOR, SIMILE, PRESENT TENSE, PROPER NOUNS, ABSTRACT NOUNS, REPORTED SPEECH, LISTING, PARENTHESIS ETC. QUOTE FROM THE TEXT TO ILLUSTRATE YOUR POINTS. STATE THE EFFECT OF THE LINGUISTIC CHOICES. THE TEXTS MIGHT BE DIFFERENT IN TERMS OF CONTEXT AND AUDIENCE.
However, the texts are different because…
My second grouping will be Speech. Texts C and D can be grouped because they both contain features of spontaneous speech...... However, text D is different to text C because it is a dialogue as opposed to a monologue and as such contains many structural and interactional features associated with conversations…
Features of speech to include:
FILLERS, UNINTENTIONAL REPETITION, FALSE STARTS, PAUSES, DIGRESSION, DEICTIC EXPRESSIONS, ELLIPSIS, ELISION
QUOTE FROM THE TEXT TO ILLUSTRATE YOUR POINTS AND EXPLAIN THE EFFECT OF SUCH LANGUAGE AND WHY IT IS USED.
Text J is different from Texts B and H because it is a conversation (OPENING SEQUENCE, TURN-TAKING, ADJACENCY PAIRS, TOPICS, TOPIC SHIFTS, TOPIC LOOPS, REPAIRS, FEEDBACK, CLOSING SEQUENCE, POLITENESS STRATEGIES
My final grouping will be levels of formality.
Texts C and E can be grouped as they are informal. They contain many informal linguistic features…
FORMAL, POLYSYLLABIC LEXIS, LATINATE / FRENCH LEXIS, JARGON, FIELD SPECIFIC LEXIS, COMPLETE, COMPLEX SENTENCES, IMPERSONAL LEXIS, NON-COLLOQUIAL LEXIS, COMPLETE SENTENCES, COMPLEX, DECLARATIVE SENTENCES. (QUOTE FROM THE TEXT TO ILLUSTRATE YOUR POINTS) STATE WHY THEY ARE FORMAL – IS IT RELATED TO THE CONTEXT, AUDIENCE, PURPOSE. STATE THE EFFECT OF THE FORMALITY.
However, Text C is more informal than E because the audience is…
Texts A and F can be grouped as they are formal. They contain…However, they are different in that…
In your answer you must:
- Use at least the above three groupings (sub-groups will gain higher grades)
- Use linguistic terminology in an ordered way (Remember the framework)
- Explain the effect of the linguistic devices used
- Refer to context (e.g.. setting, audience, relationship between participants)
Groupings: Model answer – based on Jan 09 paper
My first grouping is purpose. Texts B, E and G all aim to inform their target audience, however, the audience are all different and the information given is for different purposes. Text B is informing its audience of the limitations of the ticket. Text B uses formal declaratives to help the reader understand the importance of the information being given. The text uses ‘tickets cannot be exchanged or refunded’ for example. The information is listed in numerical order for ease of read. The sentences are kept short and direct using unambiguous language, for example ‘this ticket is valid for one admission only’. The text is for a wide audience of different ages so the lexis is kept simple to help the information be easily understood, for example ‘the V&A shall not be responsible for loos or damage’. Text E also aims to inform but for different reasons from text B. This text is from a teacher passing over information to her class. The text also uses declaratives to inform the reader, for example ‘I’m off sick today’. The text uses dates and detailed reference to pass over information, for example ‘read on to p228’. Parenthesis is used to give further information to the reader. Modal verbs are also used to help convey information in a polite manner, for example ‘you can feed back to me’. Text G aims to inform the reader, however, this text is taken from spoken language. This text also uses declaratives to help give information, for example ‘we’ve just been to a festival’. The text uses reported speech from the band members to pass over information to their fans, for example ‘it’s always good to come home’.
Texts C and F can also be grouped through purpose, however, these are both aiming to persuade their audience. Text C uses many forms of persuasive techniques to appeal to their young audience and try to persuade them to visit. Alliteration is used for example ‘four-star surfing school’. Rhyme and listing are also evident, for example ‘sneezy, breezy, freezy’. Specifically selected reported speech is used to help persuade the audience to visit, for example ‘the waves are better’. Inclusive pronouns are used to help involve the reader, for example the second person pronoun of ‘you’. Humour is used to help involve the reader, for example ‘bug-eating not compulsory, unless you really want to’. A positive lexis is also used to help persuade the audience, for example positive emotive adjectives like ‘warmer’ and ‘better’ are used. Text F uses persuasive techniques to try and make its audience visit a website. The use of reported speech through a famous well known song helps grab the reader’s attention immediately, for example ‘I see trees of green’. The blanking out of words helps persuade the audience of the purpose of the article to show that singing helps learning. Friendly imperatives are used to persuade the audience to visit the website, for example ‘log on’. Inclusive pronouns are also evident throughout to help involve the reader, for example the second person pronoun of ‘you’ is seen. Positive adjectives are also seen in the lyrics if the song to help create an emotive visual image, for example ‘bright’.
My next grouping is levels of formality. Texts B, C and F are all formal. Text D could appear to be informal as it is aimed at children, however, the text actually is written in a formal manner. Text B uses formal complete sentences to convey the information in a serious manner, for example ‘The V&A reserves the right to amend or make alterations to the published details’. The text also uses many polysyllabic to keep the text in a formal manner, for example ‘responsible’. The text is kept to impersonal lexis to keep strict formality by not becoming friendly, for example ‘the ticket is valid for one admission only’. The use of field specific lexis of sales also adds formality, for example ‘admission’ and ‘reserves’. The formality helps certify the relationship between the museum and its audience, keeping a strict business relationship between the two. Text C stays mainly formal. The use of polysyllabic lexis is evident, for example ‘peninsula’. Latinate lexis is also evident, for example ‘compulsory’. Complete sentences are evident throughout, for example ‘discover your inner Ray Mears’. However, unlike text B this text tries to stay friendly towards the reader as they try to persuade them to visit Wales using persuasive techniques. Text F also uses polysyllabic lexis, for example ‘inspiration’. Complete sentences re also evident such as ‘have you noticed how easy it is to learn things when you sing them?’ This text also tries to stay in a friendly manner as they appeal to the audience. Text D although appearing child like does stay formal throughout. Some polysyllabic lexis is still used, for example ‘innocently’. Complete sentences are also seen, for example ‘Gordon was resting in a siding’. The fact that the book was written in 1953 explains why the text stays formal.
Texts A and G can be grouped together as they are both informal. Text A is a conversation between two associates. As the two participants appear to know each other the lexis used stays informal, personal and friendly. The use of colloquialisms for example adds informality, such as ‘yeah’. Ellipsis is also seen, for example ‘there’s a Hargrove on’. Elision is also evident, for example ‘it’s’. Phatic expressions are also used adding informality to the text, for example ‘how are you?’ Deixical expression can also be seen, such as ‘in half and hour’. Text G uses colloquial language to keep the piece friendly, for example ‘dead’. Fronted conjunctions are also evident, for example ‘and’. We see northern dialect being used by the band members, for example ‘yeah’. Simple sentences structures are also used throughout to keep the relationship friendly, for example ‘a lot of British. These texts both use informality as a means of politeness strategy as they attempt to appear friendly to the other participants. Text G also uses the informality to relate to the target audience of the bands fans. Text E could be grouped separately as semi-formal; it begins with informality buts ends in a formal manner. The text begins in a friendly informal manner to appeal to the audience of the teachers students. For example we see the Americanisation of ‘guys’ and elision in ‘I’m’ in the opening sentence. The text becomes more formal towards the end as the teacher attempts to instruct her pupils on the work necessary and the importance of completion. For example we see polysyllabic lexis with ‘significance’ and long complex sentences such as ‘I suggest you split this section up between you...’
My next grouping is going to be texts with features of spontaneous speech. Texts A and G both show many signs of spoken language. The text is structured in adjacency pairs and triplets which help the conversation flow, for example ‘what’s on today?...there’s a Hargrove on’. We see phatic expression such as ‘how are you’ and deixis with ‘today’ which are both common features of spontaneous speech. Elision and ellipsis are also evident, for example ‘it’s’ and ‘twelve in for chicken curry’. Text G also has features of spontaneous speech. We see fronted conjunctions, such as ‘And’. We also see colloquial language and northern dialect evident in the text with ‘yeah’ and ‘dead’. This would indicate the speakers own idiosyncratic style of language evident through his speech. Text D can also be added to the group although it is a written text. This text uses features of spontaneous speech to make the text appear to be from spoken language. For example we see elision with ‘aren’t’ and ellipsis with ‘is is right?’ the text also uses non-standard spelling with ‘hullo’ to represent the characters idiosyncratic style of speech. The use of elongated vowels is also evident for effect, for example ‘me e e e e!’
My next grouping is semantic fields. Texts A, C, D, E, F and G all use semantic fields, however, they all use different text to help appeal to the target audience and to help with cohesion. Text A uses the semantic field of food, we see words such as ‘chicken’ and toffee’ this helps link the text and help it flow. Text C uses the semantic field of holidays, for example ‘beaches’ and ‘waves’. This helps sell the text to the target audience. Text D uses the semantic field of trains, for example ‘engine’ and ‘rails’, this helps with cohesion by linking the text with the image. Text E uses the semantic field of learning, for example ‘annotation’ and ‘school’, this helps link the text to the audience of pupils. Text F uses the semantic field of weather, for example ‘bright’ and ‘clouds’, this helps link the text to the audience through the use of reported speech. Text G uses the semantic field of festivals, for example ‘song’ and ‘applaud’, this helping link the text to the target audience.
My next grouping is graphology. Text C, D and F all use many features if graphology to help make the piece visually attractive to the target audience. Text C uses a large image of surfers to grab the attention immediately of the target audience. The text takes second place to the image as this is obviously considered the most important part of the text. Text D uses a large image which links in with the story being told helping give the reader a visual image of the unfolding story. The text is also written in an attractive font to appeal to the young audience. Text F also uses attractive fonts to grab the reader’s attention. Texts B and E can also be added to the group. However, they use graphological features to draw attention to certain areas of importance. Text B uses bold type to draw the reader attention to the text. Text E also uses bold font to draw the reader’s attention to the class and date the message is written for.
Excellent use of groupings. There are comparisons and also contrasts which pushes the grade up. Excellent use of textual references and linguistic terminology.