In the UK 23% of our total land area lies within 10kms of the coast and this means that 17 million people live within this coastal zone.

In England and Wales a large number of government, local authority and private organisations are responsible for coastal management

Local authorities have to produce Shoreline Management Plans (SMP) which set out a strategy for the coastal management of a section of the coastline

An SMP can recommend four options: Do Nothing, Hold the Line, Advance the Line and Retreat the Line (Managed Retreat)

Coastal defence methods fall into two categories: Hard Defences and Soft Defences

Hard defences try to control the natural coastal processes

Soft defences try to work with the natural processes and are less unsightly

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