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Specification Requirements:

  • Origins of Psychology: Wundt, introspection and the emergence of Psychology as a science.

The basic assumptions of the following approaches:

  • Learning approaches: the behaviourist approach, including classical conditioning and Pavlov’s research, operant conditioning, types of reinforcement and Skinner’s research; social learning theory including imitation, identification, modelling, vicarious reinforcement, the role of mediational processes and Bandura’s research.
  • The cognitive approach: the study of internal mental processes, the role of schema, the use of theoretical and computer models to explain and make inferences about mental processes. The emergence of cognitive neuroscience.
  • The biological approach: the influence of genes, biological structures and neurochemistry on behaviour. Genotype and phenotype, genetic basis of behaviour, evolution and behaviour.

Requirements broken down (research studies are in bold) - Students should be able to:

Origins of psychology

  1. Explain what Wundt meant by introspection
  2. Describe the emergence of Psychology as a science from its early philosophical roots to the 21st century.

The Learning approach

  1. Describe and evaluate the behaviourist approach including classical and operant conditioning and Pavlov and Skinner’s studies
  2. Describe and evaluate social learning theory including research support from Bandura

The Cognitive approach

  1. Describe and evaluate the cognitive approach including theoretical and computer models, schemas and the emergence of cognitive neuroscience

The Biological approach

  1. Describe and evaluate the biological approach including genes, genotype and phenotype and evolution


Origins of Psychology

  • Psychology
  • Science
  • Introspection

The Learning approach

  • Behaviourist approach
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • Reinforcement 
  • Social learning theory
  • Imitation
  • Identification
  • Modelling
  • Vicarious reinforcement
  • Mediational processes

The Cognitive approach

  • Cognitive approach
  • Internal mental processes
  • Schema
  • Inference
  • Cognitive neuroscience

The Biological approach

  • Biological approach
  • Genes
  • Biological structure
  • Neurochemistry
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Evolution

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