Title

Memory
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Specification Requirements

  • The multi-store model of memory: sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory. Features of each store: coding, capacity and duration.
  • Types of long-term memory: episodic, semantic, procedural.
  • The working memory model: central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer. Features of the model: coding and capacity.
  • Explanations for forgetting: proactive and retroactive interference and retrieval failure due to absence of cues.
  • Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, including leading questions and post-event discussion; anxiety.
  • Improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview.

Requirements broken down (research studies are in bold) - Students should be able to:

The multi-store model of memory

  1. Describe and evaluate research relating to the coding of short term and long term memory (Baddeley)
  2. Describe and evaluate research relating to the capacity of short term and long term memory (Jacobs and Linton )
  3. Describe and evaluate research relating to the duration of short term and long term memory (Peterson and Peterson and Bahrick)
  4. Describe and evaluate the multi-store model of memory including research support from Baddeley and Shallice and Warrington (case study: KF)

Types of long term memory

  1. Describe and evaluate 3 types of long term memory (a. Episodic, b. Semantic, c. Procedural) including research support from case studies HM and Clive Wearing.

The working memory model

  1. Describe and evaluate the working memory model including research support from Shallice and Warrington (case study: KF)

Explanations for forgetting

  1. Describe and evaluate interference theory as an explanation for forgetting including research support from McGeoch and McDonald
  2. Describe and evaluate retrieval failure as an explanation for forgetting including research support from Godden and Baddeley and Carter and Cassaday

Factors affecting eye witness testimony (EWT)

  1. Describe and evaluate research into misleading information and eyewitness testimony: leading questions (Loftus and Palmer)
  2. Describe and evaluate research into misleading information and eyewitness testimony: post-event discussion (Gabbert)
  3. Describe and evaluate research into anxiety and eyewitness testimony: negative effect (Loftus/ Johnson and Scott)
  4. Describe and evaluate research into anxiety and eyewitness testimony: positive effect (Yuille and Cutshall)

Improving the accuracy of EWT

  1. Describe and evaluate the use of the cognitive interview to improve the accuracy of EWT including supporting research from Kohnken

 

KEY CONCEPTS

The multi-store model of memory

  • Coding
  • Capacity
  • Duration
  • Short term memory
  • Long term memory
  • Multi-store model (MSM)
  • Sensory register

Types of long term memory

  • Episodic memory
  • Semantic memory
  • Procedural memory

The working memory model

  • Working memory model (WMM)
  • Central executive
  • Phonological loop
  • Visuo-spatial sketchpad
  • Episodic buffer

Explanations for forgetting

  • Interference
  • Proactive interference
  • Retroactive interference
  • Retrieval failure
  • Cue

Factors affecting eyewitness  testimony (EWT)

  • Eyewitness testimony (EWT)
  • Misleading information
  • Leading question
  • Post-event discussion
  • Anxiety
  • Weapon focus effect

Improving the accuracy of EWT

  • Cognitive interview

 

 

 

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