Quick revise

After studying this section you should understand

Introduction Video

Different types of connective tissue join muscles to bones: Here is a short video providing an introduction to Joints.

Cartilage - forms a cushion between the bone, to prevent them rubbing together

Ligaments - Similar to a strong piece of string, that hold bones together

Tendons - Attach muscle to bone or to other muscle

There are 3 different types of joints:

1. Fixed (Immovable)

  • Also known as fibrous joints.
  • Hold the bones together, like between the bones in the skull.

2. Slightly Movable

  • Also known as cartilaginous joints.
  • Each bone rests on a cartilage, like in the vertebrae.
  • Ligaments stop the bones from moving too far.

3. Freely Movable

  • Also known as synovial joints.
  • These contain synovial fluid inside the synovial membrane, which lubricates the joints, like in the shoulder.

Joint Movement

There are 5 types of joint movement:

1. Extension – opening a joint

2. Flexion – closing a joint

3. Adduction – moving towards an imaginary centre line

4. Abduction – moving away from an imaginary centre line

5. Rotation – turning a limb clockwise or anti-clockwise

Movable Joints

There are 5 types of movable joints:

1. Ball and Socket

  • Found in the hip and shoulder
  • Can move an all directions, and rotate, allowing all 5 types of movement.

2. Hinge

  • Found in the elbow and knee
  • Can go backwards and forwards, but not sideways, allowing flexion and extension

3. Pivot

  • Found in the neck, between the axis and atlas bones, allowing only rotation

4. Condyloid

  • Found in the wrist
  • Can move forwards and backwards, left to right, but not rotate, allowing flexion, extension, adduction and abduction

5. Gliding

  • Found between the carpels or tarsels
  • Can move a little in all directions by sliding over one another