After studying this section you should understand
Different types of connective tissue join muscles to bones: Here is a short video providing an introduction to Joints.
Cartilage - forms a cushion between the bone, to prevent them rubbing together
Ligaments - Similar to a strong piece of string, that hold bones together
Tendons - Attach muscle to bone or to other muscle
1. Fixed (Immovable)
- Also known as fibrous joints.
- Hold the bones together, like between the bones in the skull.
2. Slightly Movable
- Also known as cartilaginous joints.
- Each bone rests on a cartilage, like in the vertebrae.
- Ligaments stop the bones from moving too far.
3. Freely Movable
- Also known as synovial joints.
- These contain synovial fluid inside the synovial membrane, which lubricates the joints, like in the shoulder.
There are 5 types of movable joints:
1. Ball and Socket
- Found in the hip and shoulder
- Can move an all directions, and rotate, allowing all 5 types of movement.
- Found in the elbow and knee
- Can go backwards and forwards, but not sideways, allowing flexion and extension
- Found in the neck, between the axis and atlas bones, allowing only rotation
- Found in the wrist
- Can move forwards and backwards, left to right, but not rotate, allowing flexion, extension, adduction and abduction
- Found between the carpels or tarsels
- Can move a little in all directions by sliding over one another