- Embryology: Growing embryos in a science lab to study them so that we can learn more about human cells and illness.
- Human Genetic Engineering: Changing the make-up of genes to change human features.
- Designer Babies: Babies with gender of characteristics chose by their parents.
- Gene Testing: Testing a foetus early in pregnancy to see if it has a serious illness or disability.
- Reproductive Cloning: Creation of an identical copy of an organism. (Illegal to clone humans). Common in selective animal breeding.
- Therapeutic Cloning (Stem-Cell Cloning): Clones biological material to produce embryos, from which stem cells can be taken to be used in research.
Christian Arguments For/Against Cloning:
- Christians who follow ‘Agape’ are more likely to agree with Therapeutic cloning because they believe that love is the most important law. This type of cloning is considered as helping someone and therefore is showing a form of love. They are following Jesus’ example by showing this love and by being able to positively change a person’s life forever, it should be seen as a good thing.
- Making use of the gifts God has given them.
- Christians believe God gave humans the responsibility to act as good stewards of the world. Meaning they should care for the world itself and other humans within it. Perhaps scientists who play around with genetics are ‘Playing God’ and are therefore not being good stewards.
- Christians who follow ‘Sanctity of Life’ are less likely to agree with therapeutic cloning because they believe that life is God-Given and a human’s life is precious. Therefore they shouldn’t be taking the stem cells from embryos before destroying the embryo. Because they are essentially destroying a life.
Muslim Arguments For/Against Cloning:
- The design and creation of life is Allah’s responsibility. Humans do not have the intellect to interfere with God’s plan and cloning does this.
- Benefits however, could lead to cures and better medical treatment. Which helps to protect God’s creations.
General, non-religious arguments, include some people suggesting that cloned Animals and Human’s (e.g. Embryo’s) do not have a soul. I do not agree with this because identical twins are an example of cloned humans, however we would say that both of them have a soul.
Experimenting on Humans/Hybrids:
- Human-Animal Hybrid Embryo: An embryo made from Human DNA and animal eggs for medical purposes.
- Human Experimentation: Testing products (usually medicines) on paid human volunteers.
Stages for Drug Testing:
- Lab Testing – Tissue samples are tested In Vitro and by Computer Stimulation.
- Drug – Tested for toxicity on Animals (usually rodents)
- Cleared for testing on Humans by Medicines and Health care products regulatory agency and other ethical bodies.
- Human Testing – Safety and side effects on healthy volunteers.
- Tested for effectiveness and side effects on illness.
- Full info on large numbers of people with illness.