Social and Cultural Aspects

Quick revise

After studying this section you should understand

Amateur and Professional competitors


  • Don’t get paid
  • Take part because the enjoy it
  • Hockey is a sport that is totally amateur
  • Clubs have to pay for the hire of facilities
  • Players of the clubs pay membership fees
  • Some clubs get sponsorship from small local businesses


  • Get paid for playing
  • Their full time job
  • TV and radio pay massive amounts for the rights to show the event
  • They sell merchandise
  • Sponsorship

Influence of Spectators

Crowds can influence a match by cheering on their team and putting off the opposition. This is a reason why playing at home is an advantage.

They buy tickets and other merchandise, which brings money into the club.

However, there can be a downside to fans. Facilities are needed, and stewards have to be there to supervise them. The police may be needed to control large numbers of fans, and the clubs have to pay for this.


Has caused disasters, so action has been taken

e.g. Heysel Disaster – in 1985, at the European Cup Final, 39 Juventus fans were killed when Liverpool fans rushed towards them, making a wall collapse.

Other spectator disasters

e.g. Hillsborough Disaster – at the 1989 FA Cup semi-final, 96 fans were crushed to death against fences around the pitch, after too many people had been let into the stadium.

As a result of this 'The Taylor Report' made the following recommendations

  • Stadiums had to have fences separating opposing fans
  • Stadiums had to become all-seater
  • Club membership schemes were introduced to stop known trouble makers entering the grounds
  • Perimeter fences between the crowds and the pitch were removed
  • CCTV was installed to monitor fans

Sporting Behaviour


The unwritten rules In sport this means fair play and good manners

Footballers often kick the ball out of play if an opponent is injured so they can be treated. At the throw in, the opposition give the ball back to the other team.

At the end of a tennis match, players shake their opponent’s and umpire’s hand.


This is rare in non-contact sports, as there is no direct aggression

Fights do break out in aggressive team sports, such as rugby

Some people say violence among players causes spectator violence, but this is not been proved either way

If a player has behaved in a violent manner, they can be fined or suspended, and their club may be fined.