Key Studies

Social Influence


Subtopic that the study supports



Informational social influence

1. Lucas

Normative social influence

2. Asch

Variables that may affect conformity (Group size, unanimity, task difficulty)

3. Asch’s variations

Conformity to social roles

Conformity to social roles

4. Zimbardo


Research into obedience

5. Milgram

Situational variables that increase obedience (proximity, location, uniform)

6. Milgram’s variations

The authoritarian personality and obedience

7. Elms

Resistance to social influence

Social support as an explanation for resisting social influence

3. Asch’s variations

Locus of control and resisting social influence

8. Holland

Minority influence

Explanations for minority influence

9. Moscovici

Social change

Minorities and social change

9. Moscovici

Conformity and social change

10. Nolan




Subtopic that the study supports


Multi-store model (MSM)

The coding of short and long term memory

1. Baddeley

The capacity of short term memory

2. Jacobs

The capacity of long term memory

3. Linton 

The duration of short term memory

4. Peterson and Peterson

The duration of long term memory

5. Bahrick

Research supporting the MSM

1. Baddeley

Research contradicting the MSM

6. Shallice and Warrington (KF)

Types of long term memory

Case studies to support different types of long term memory

7. HM

8. Clive Wearing

Working memory model (WMM)

Research supporting the WMM

6. Shallice and Warrington (KF)

Explanations for forgetting

Interference theory

9. McGeoch and McDonald

Retrieval failure

10. Godden and Baddeley

11. Carter and Cassaday

Factors affecting eyewitness testimony (EWT)

Misleading information: Leading questions

12. Loftus and Palmer

Misleading information: Post-event discussion

13. Gabbert

Anxiety (reducing the accuracy)

14. Loftus et al

Anxiety (increasing the accuracy)

15. Yuille and Cutshall

Improving the accuracy of EWT

Using the cognitive interview to increase the accuracy of EWT

16. Kohnken




Subtopic that the study supports


Introduction to attachment

The formation of attachments

1. Schaffer and Emerson

Animal studies of attachment

Animal studies of attachment

2. Lorenz

3. Harlow

Explanations of attachment

Learning theory of attachment (contradictory research)

1. Schaffer and Emerson

3. Harlow

Bowlby’s monotropic theory of attachment

4. Brazelton

Bowlby’s theory of attachment (contradictory research)

1. Schaffer and Emerson

Types of attachment

Types of attachment

5. Ainsworth

Cultural variations of type of attachment

6. van Ijzendoorn

Breaking attachments

Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis

7. Bowlby


8. Rutter

Attachment and later relationships

The influence of early attachment on adult relationships

9. Hazan and Shaver


Approaches in Psychology


Subtopic that the study supports


The learning approach

Classical conditioning

1. Pavlov

Operant conditioning

2. Skinner

Social learning theory

3. Bandura




Subtopic that the study supports


The behavioural approach and phobias

Behavioural explanation of phobias

1. Watson and Raynor

Behavioural treatment for phobias

2. Gilroy

The cognitive approach and depression

Cognitive explanation of depression

3. Grazioli and Terry

Cognitive treatment for depression

4. March

The biological approach and OCD

Biological explanations of OCD

5. Nestadt

Biological treatment for OCD

6. Soomro


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